Tissue similar to the lining of the womb (endometrium) is found within the muscle wall of the womb (myometrium)
The cause of adenomyosis is currently unknown and various theories have been suggested. For example:
Surgery e.g. caesarean section.
Inflammation of the uterus caused by childbirth
Developmental (occurs during the development of a foetus).
Many women with adenomyosis are asymptomatic (they do not experience any symptoms).
However some women have reported having the following symptoms:
Prolonged or heavy periods
Pain during or after sex
Chronic pelvic pain
If you think you may have adenomyosis you should see your doctor.
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and perform an examination of your abdomen and vagina.
You may be given medication to improve your symptoms and if these do not help then you will be referred to a gynaecologist.
The gynaecologist will do an ultrasound scan and/ or an MRI scan.
Adenomyosis can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms can vary and can be caused by other conditions such as endometriosis
There is no definitive cure for adenomyosis, however, the symptoms can be managed using:
Medical- pain relief (e.g. paracetamol, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid), non-hormonal medications to reduce bleeding (e.g. tranexamic acid).
Hormonal or contraceptive treatments e.g. the pill, the coil, GnRH agonist (injection to induce a temporary and reversible menopause).
Surgery- hysterectomy (surgery to remove the uterus).
Fertility preserving procedures e.g. uterine artery embolisation (small particles injected into the blood vessels via a tube in the groin to reduce bleeding).
Some women with adenomyosis experience complications such as: